Cross-comparison Diagrams



Uganda Universal Education Policy

Ideas to Consider


Universal Education Policy

Model Development Model. Uganda’s UEP primary objective is to use education as a tool for economic development and poverty eradication.
Weaknesses, Gaps, and Contradictions -Limit of 4 children per family.-The policy emphasizes the mainstreaming of all categories of children.-Emphasis is on day schools – children with visual and physical disabilities are finding it increasingly difficult to travel for long distances to and from school.-Mobility aids are not provided.-Special education teachers…are inadequate and non-existent in most primary schools.-Classrooms are always too congested.-Does not explain what will happen to the tens of thousands of children after primary level.-Ratio of teacher to pupil is 1:110.

-Negative attitudes of most teachers towards children with disabilities.

-The program has almost become too expensive to run. The result is that donors have been approached for assistance. However, these donors often come in with their own conditions, which may not be wholly in the interests of the program.

Strengths -The government commits itself to providing primary education for a maximum of 4 children per family.-To comply with Uganda’s constitutional requirements on affirmative action in favor of marginalized groups, 2 of the 4 must be girls, if a family has children of both sexes. -If a family has a child with disability, he or she must be granted the highest priority in enrolment under this program.-The government pays the school fees for the children. It also provides grants to be spent on instructional materials, co-curricular activities like sport, and the management and maintenance of utilities like water and electricity.
Main Actors Ugandan government, Ministry of Education and Sports, local authorities, school management committees elected by parents.
Characteristics/ Themes Education for national development.-Establish, provide and maintain quality education as the basis for promoting human resource development-Make basic education accessible to the learner and relevant to his or her needs, as well as meeting national goals;-Meet the objective of poverty eradication by equipping every 
individual with basic skills and knowledge.
Effective/ Ineffective Effective in a limited scope.-The UEP got rid of tuition fees for primary schools but parents are still responsible for school supplies like pens and paper, for some families this could keep attendance out of reach.-Local authorities and Chief Administrative Officers are in charge of making sure government funds from the UEP are delivered to primary schools. Any corruption controls are unclear or non-existent.-Enrollment in primary schools surged but the number of teachers did not. The question of quantity of children being education versus the quality of education being received comes into play.

Rwanda Media Bill

Ideas to Consider:



(Media Bill)

Models  Development (bc of extent of gov. control in public media)
Weaknesses, Gaps, & Contradictions  Overbroad definitions of ‘journalists’ and ‘defamation’ expose many such as bloggers to unjust punishment and lawsuits.(Weakness) “There is also a lack of clarity regarding the enforcement of the Media Law, in particular it is unclear which bodies have the power to determine press offences and what procedures and procedural safeguards are in effect for the determination of liability and sanctions for those offences.”
Strengths  Removal of the requirement that journalists hold particular academic qualifications as this unnecessarily restricts access to the profession, removal of excessively bureaucratic requirements concerning press cards. Lifting of restrictions on journalists, including the prohibition from the using of unlawful methods to obtain or to disseminate information, neglecting essential information, distorting ideas contained in an information or a text. Repeal of the grounds on which the authorities can refuse to provide information. Lifting of the requirement for photojournalists to seek authorization by the media authorities to perform their profession. Liberalization of the system of sanctions for the media by repealing the provisions on warning or suspension of a press publication and penalties for irregular press publications. Repeal of sanctions of suspension and closure of a publication, both of which are disproportionate restrictions on the right to freedom of expression.
Main Actors  Government & government controlled commissions (Media High Commission)
Characteristics/Themes  Struggle with definition of media terms/ enforcement.
Weaknesses  The classification of journalists is very broad. It currently includes anyone who engages in the distribution of information including social media users. In addition, the government will penalize journalists for news items   it deems liable however, the definition of “news items” is also  very broad.

Kenya Freedom of Information Bill

Ideas to Consider:



(Freedom of Info)

Model Development Model
Overlaps & Similarities  Many areas of the bill still fail to comply with “international standards on the right to freedom of expression”. Establishment of gov controlled commissions to regulate media and info access.
Strengths  Broad definition of the right to information, the duty to disclose information stemming not from public ownership but from its public functions, the right to seek information from private bodies, a clear and simple procedure for accessing information that takes into account language barriers and imposes minimal costs.Sets out the principles of access to public information, determines the subjects of the law (both right holders and duty bearers) and regulates the procedure for seeking public information. The Draft Bill also establishes the Kenya Freedom of Information and Data Protection Commission and introduces an enforcement mechanism.


Main Actors  Government & government controlled commissions (Data Protection Commission)
Characteristics/Themes  Protection of national security over public interest “[a] public body or private body shall accede to the authority of the commission in all matters relating to access of information (Section 26, para 7 of the Draft Bill);” 
Weaknesses  Ineffective in the sense that only Kenyan citizens are covered under the bill.The bill is not enforceable by High Courts